ABOUT The Fouga Magister (company designation CM.170) is a
1950s French two-seat jet trainer. The related CM.175 Zéphyr was a
carrier-capable version for the French Navy.
Although it is sometimes lauded as the first purpose-built two-seat
turbojet-powered trainer aircraft, similar claims are made for the
Fokker S.14 Machtrainer whose first flight, production and service
entry were all about a year earlier. However, the Magister was much
more successful than the Machtrainer, being produced in far greater
numbers and being exported to many nations. Nearly 1000 Magisters
compared to the 21 Machtrainers.
DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT In 1948, Fouga designed a
jet-powered primary trainer called CM.130 for the French Air Force
(Armée de l'Air, AdA) to replace piston-engined Morane-Saulnier
MS.475 aircraft. When AdA found the aircraft lacking in power from
the two Turbomeca Palas turbojets, Fouga enlarged the basic design
and used the more powerful Turbomeca Marboré engine. The
distinctive V-tail of the new CM.170 Magister originated on the CM.8
glider Fouga was using to experiment with jet engines. In December
1950, AdA ordered three prototypes, with the first aircraft flying on
23 July 1952. A preproduction batch of 10 were ordered in June 1953
followed by the first production order for 95 aircraft on 13 January
1954. Fouga built a new assembly plant at Toulouse-Blagnac to
produce the aircraft. The aircraft entered service with AdA in 1956.
Due to different industrial mergers, the aircraft has been known as
the "Fouga CM.170 Magister", "Potez (Fouga) CM.170 Magister",
Sud Aviation(Fouga) CM.170 Magister" and "Aérospatiale (Fouga)
CM.170 Magister" depending on where and when they were built.
The French Navy's Aéronavale adopted a derivative of the Magister,
the CM.175 Zéphyr, as a basic trainer for deck landing training and
carrier operations. These were preceded by two "proof of concept"
prototypes designated the CM.170M Magister, which made their first
flights in 1956/57.
An improved version of the Magister designated the CM.170-2
Magister was produced from 1960. It used a more powerful
Turbomeca Marboré IV engine. Production of the Magister stopped in
France in 1962 but continued to be built in Finland up to 1967.
The development of the aircraft came to an end when the French Air
Force selected the Alpha Jet as their new jet trainer.
After retirement, several Magisters have been bought by private
owner pilots in the USA and are operated in the experimental category.
The Classic Aircraft Aviation Museum is proud to own and fly the
flight worthy CM.170 Magister (shown here)
SPECIFICATIONS and General characteristics
Length: 10.06 m (33 ft 0 in)
Wingspan: 12.15 m (39 ft 10 in)
Height: 2.80 m (9 ft 2 in)
Wing area: 17.30 m² (186.1 ft²)
Empty weight: 2,150 kg (4,740 lb)
Loaded weight: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb)
Max. take-off weight: 3,200 kg (7,055 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Turbomeca Marboré IIA turbojets,
3.92 kN (880 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 715 km/h
(386 knots, 444 mph) at 9,000 m (30,000 ft)
Range: 925 km (500 nmi, 575 mi)
Service ceiling: 11,000 m (36,080 ft)
Rate of climb: 17 m/s (3,345 ft/min)
Wing loading: 165 kg/m² (34 lb/ft²)
2x 7.5 mm or 7.62 mm machine guns, 200 rounds/gun
Up to 140 kg (310 lb) of weapons on two under-wing hard points,
including 50 kg (110 lb) bombs, unguided rockets, and Nord
Aviation SS.11 anti-tank missiles.
Role Jet trainer
National origin France
First flight 23 July 1952
Primary users French Air Force, Israeli Air Force,
Luftwaffe, Finnish Air Force
Number built 929 total
Variants Fouga Zéphyr